The Coat of Arms of the city of Amsterdam is somewhat of an enigma: not much is known about its origins or its precise meaning.
At its heart are three white X’s displayed on a black band that runs down the middle of a red shield.
You can dismiss one frequently suggested explanation right off the bat: Forget the dated, louche image of Amsterdam as a city high on triple-X entertainment.
The X’s are actually St. Andrew’s Crosses — named after the apostle Andrew who was martyred on an X-shaped cross in the 1st century AD.
The shield is the official symbol of the City of Amsterdam.
In the full coat of arms the shield is shown underneath the Imperial Crown of Austria (more about that in a moment).
Two golden lions flank the shield, and the motto of Amsterdam is on a scroll below it: Heldhaftig (Heroic), Vastberaden (Resolute), Barmhartig (Merciful) — jokingly updated by some as ‘Defiant, Stubborn, and Extremely Tolerant.’
Throughout Amsterdam you can see depictions of portions of the Coat of Arms, but the full version is seldom used.
Many people believe the St. Andrew’s crosses refer to the three dangers medieval Amsterdam faced: fire, floods and the Black Death. But there is no historical evidence for that interpretation.
As mentioned, though titillated folks with an active imagination often assume the three X’s refer to the city’s liberal reputation, that is not the case either.
The three crosses also do not represent the words of the official motto, which has only been in use since 1947. The motto was added that year by then Queen Wilhelmina to commemorate the demeanor of the citizens of Amsterdam during World War II.
We do know the symbol has been in use for a long time.
During recent construction work for the North/South metro line workers found a pair of old pliers bearing the three crosses. Archaeologists have dated the tool to 1350 — making it the oldest instance of the emblem.
The official web site of the City of Amsterdam explains:
The heraldic origins of the coat of arms of Amsterdam are unknown. The black banner in the centre could represent the water of the rivers Amstel and IJ at which the city is located.
The three St. Andrew’s crosses may stem from the Persijn crusader family from Waterland, which owned a considerable amount of land in and around Amsterdam.
In 1489 the small merchant city obtained the right to add to its coat of arms the crown of the monarch, Maximilian I, archduke of Austria, German king and Holy Roman emperor.
For the merchants of Amsterdam the crown was a weighty recommendation in other elements of the Kingdom, right down to the 17th century.
By that time, Amsterdam had long been a powerful trading city in a by now Protestant country which, in 1648, was formally to leave the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation under the Peace of Münster.
The crown adorning the emblem and the tower of the Westerkerk church is in fact the crown of emperor Rudolf II. The two lions were added as shield-bearers in the 16th century.
In recognition of the conduct of the people of Amsterdam during the German occupation of 1940-1945, Queen Wilhelmina granted the city the right on 27 March 1947 to add to the coat of arms the motto ‘Valiant, Resolute, Compassionate’.
– Source: Amsterdam.nl
The emblem shows up on just about anything and everything: flags, buildings, hats, cups, underwear, napkins, and so on. You can have it tattooed on your body, buy it as jewelry, or eat it as chocolate.
Chances are you’ll buy at least one souvenir with the emblem imprinted on it.
Do not republish or repost.